Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


15 seconds

First reward delay

1 block

15 seconds

Reward frequency

Every block

15 seconds

Unbonding period

21 day

21 day


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal





Equivocation - 2%

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 21 days.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Decreasing number of tokens issued per year. Inflation begins at 8% and drops each year by 10% until the inflation rate reaches 1.5%. The inflation rate is applied to the beginning total supply of each year. For example, at genesis, Celestia had a total supply of 1 billion TIA and an inflation rate of 8%. For year 1, only 80 million TIA will be issued. 2% of the newly issued tokens is sent to the community pool before the rest is distributed as staking rewards.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 3,750 blocks out of the most recent 5,000 blocks will be considered offline. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join after 1 minute has passed.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 2% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements

  • Minimum commissions. A validator cannot set a commission rate lower than 5%.


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