Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
0.5 seconds
Protocol time 2
Round (PoS Block)
1 minute
Protocol time 3
PoS Epoch (= 60 rounds)
60 minutes
First reward delay
1 epoch
60 minutes
Reward frequency
At the end of every epoch
60 minutes
Unbonding period
7 days
7 days
  • Block times are not fixed.
  • The main PoW chain has its own epoch definition that runs differently from PoS epochs. PoW epochs do not have a defined duration.


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawal
Equivocation - 100%
  • Unstaking condition. Only CFX that have been staked longer than 14 days can be unstaked.

Advanced topics


  • The protocol has two chains running simultaneously.
    • PoW chain handles transaction and contract execution. Miners execute transactions and propose blocks.
    • PoS chain handles finalization of the PoW chain and helps deter 51% attacks. Validators propose blocks.


  • The protocol issues separate rewards for miners and validators.
  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens.
    • Target reward rate applied to staked tokens. New tokens are issued each epoch using the target reward rate. The target reward rate adjusts according to circulating supply and staked tokens.
      targetRewardRate=sqrt(circulating/stake)0.04targetRewardRate = sqrt(circulating/stake) * 0.04
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Commissions.


  • Slashing. Any validator that signs two different blocks at the same height will have their staked tokens locked permanently.


Total validator cap
Validator requirements
1,000 CFX
  • 1,000 CFX is considered one single consensus vote. For example, if a validator has a stake of 100,000 CFX, the protocol will consider the validator to have 100 consensus votes.
  • Every PoS epoch, the protocol selects only 300 consensus votes to participate in securing the protocol. 50 consensus votes are rotated every epoch.
  • Delegation happens on a smart contract. Each validator has its own dedicated staking pool smart contract that helps pool stake.


Last modified 8mo ago