Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


5 seconds

First reward delay

1 block

5 seconds

Reward frequency

Every block

5 seconds

Unbonding period

28 days

28 days

  • The protocol has an implicit block time target of 5 seconds. However, this is not an enforced parameter and block times can fluctuate depending on network conditions.


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal





Equivocation - 5%

  • Staking happens on the chain. Cronos Chain and chain work independently side by side, both with its own set of validators. Cronos Chain has 27 validators selected through PoA without a separate token. CRO can only be staked on the chain to its set of 100 validators.

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 21 days.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Inflation rate applied to total token supply. Inflation rate adjusts depending on the actual staking ratio to target staking ratio. The rate increases when actual staking ratio is below target staking ratio and vice-versa. The target staking ratio for chain is 30%. 15% of the newly issued tokens is sent to the community pool and the rest is sent to stakers as rewards.

    • Transaction fees. 15% of the transaction fees is sent to the community pool and the rest is sent to stakers as rewards.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Block proposer. A validator selected to propose blocks earns from 1% to 5% more rewards depending on how many other validator consensus votes have been collected.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 2,500 blocks out of the most recent 5,000 blocks will be considered offline. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join only after 24 hours has passed. Staked tokens are not deducted as part of this process.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 5% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements


Last updated