Casper Network

Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time 1


33 seconds

Protocol time 2

Era (= 220 blocks)

2 hours

First reward delay

2 eras

4 hours

Reward frequency

At the final block of every era

2 hours

Unbonding period

7 eras

14 hours

  • Block times are not fixed.


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

500 CSPR

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal








  • Delegator cap. A validator can have a maximum of 1,200 delegators.

  • Delegation fee. When delegating for the first time, the protocol charges delegators a one-time fee of 3 CSPR.

  • Rewards are directly added to the staking balance of stakers.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Fixed inflation rate applied to total token supply. The protocol issues 8% of total token supply as rewards for stakers.

    • Transaction fees. A block proposing validator receives all transaction fees from that block.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Block finalization. If a block was not finalized in a reasonable timeframe, rewards are reduced for that block.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that is offline for an entire era is considered inactive. The validator will lose any rewards earned for that era and will be queued to exit in 2 eras. For example, if Alice is flagged inactive in era N, she will lose all rewards earned for era N. She will be required to perform regular validator duties in era N+1 before being exited in era N+2.

  • Slashing. A validator that signs two conflicting messages at the same block height is considered faulty. The validator will lose any rewards earned for that era and will be immediately exited. For example, if Bob is flagged faulty in era N, he will lose all rewards earned for era N. He will not be part of the validator set from era N+1.

  • A validator that is considered inactive or faulty can be reactivated anytime.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements


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