BNB Chain

Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


3 seconds

First reward delay

2 days

2 days

Reward frequency

Daily at 00:00 UTC

1 day

Unbonding period

7 days

7 days

  • The protocol does not have a separate definition of time. Changes to staking get reflected every day at 00:00 UTC.


  • There is a 2 day delay for staking rewards to be calculated and distributed to stakers.

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount


Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawals



Offline - 50 BNB


Equivocation - 10,000 BNB

  • Reward payouts occur at the first block after 00:00 UTC.

  • Slashing and penalty apply to the validator’s own stake.

Advanced topics


  • Staking happens on BNB Beacon Chain. BNB Smart Chain is where execution happens. BNB Beacon Chain is where consensus and governance occurs.

  • Reward payouts occur at breathe blocks. The first block after 00:00 UTC is called a breathe block. This is when any staking changes are applied and rewards are distributed.


  • Rewards come from transaction fees. BNB Smart Chain burns 10% of the transaction fees incurred on its chain (see BEP-95 for more on fee burns). The rest is distributed to validators and stakers as rewards.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Validator performance. If a validator misses more than 50 blocks in a given day, that validator will not receive any rewards for that day.

    • Commissions.


  • Slashing and penalty apply to the validator’s own stake. Delegators’ stake is not at risk.


Total validator cap

29 (21 active, 8 candidates)

Validator requirements

10,000 BNB


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