Astar

Time factors

  • Block times are not fixed.

Lifecycle

  • Rewards are earned only when a validator gets selected to propose a block.

Must know before staking

  • No delegations. The protocol does not support delegations. Stakers must run a validator or find a third party operator that can run one for them.

Advanced topics

General

  • Collators. The protocol is a parachain of Polkadot. It relies on Polkadot for network security. It maintains a set of validators called collators, who propose blocks candidates and produce state transition proofs for Polkadot validators.

  • dApp staking. The protocol has a special type of locking mechanism called dApp staking. This encourages users to lock protocol tokens and vote for their favorite applications. Voters and voted applications earn protocol tokens as rewards to incentivize ecosystem growth.

    • dApp staking is closer to locking since it does not involve incentivizing node operators or validators to perform certain tasks on the protocol.

Rewards

  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Fixed token issuance per block. The protocol issues 253.08 ASTR per block. Roughly 5% goes to the block proposing collator. The rest is shared amongst the treasury and dApp stakers.

    • Transaction fees. 20% of all transaction fees and tip fees are burned. The rest is distributed to the block proposing collator.

Risks

  • Penalties. A validator that does not propose blocks for 1 hour is considered offline and will have 1% of its stake deducted.

Validators

Resources

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