Aleph Zero

Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
1 second
Protocol time 2
Era (= 86,400 blocks)
1 day
First reward delay
1 era
1 day
Reward frequency
At the end of every era
1 day
Unbonding period
14 days
14 days


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
2,000 AZERO to directly delegate 10 AZERO to join a nomination pool
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawal
Stakers have the option to automatically add rewards to their staking balance or to withdraw immediately.
  • Delegating is called nominating on Polkadot.
  • Nominator caps. Only the top 1,024 nominators of each validator can receive rewards for an era.
  • Nomination pools. Nomination pools let stakers pool their stake into one pool entity that can then nominate validators.
    • There can only be a maximum of 128 nomination pools.
  • Changing validators. Stakers who have directly nominated a validator can switch their selected validator instantly. Stakers who have joined a nomination pool will need to wait 14 days to leave and select a new nomination pool.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens.
    • Fixed number of tokens issued. 30 million new tokens are issued each year. 10% goes to the ecosystem fund while the rest is distributed to stakers.
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Validator uptime. If a validator’s uptime is lower than 90%, the validator and its delegators will receive less rewards.
    • Commissions.


  • Penalties. If a validator is offline for at least 45 minutes in a single day, the validator will be kicked out of the active set and will only be able to join after 10 days.


Total validator cap
Validator requirements
25,000 AZERO
  • Validators cannot set a commission rate lower than 2%.


Last modified 7mo ago