EOS

Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time
Block
0.5 seconds
First reward delay
-
Reward frequency
Every block
0.5 seconds
Unbonding period
3 days
3 days
  • The protocol pays rewards directly to validators. Validators can claim these rewards anytime. Only some validators share rewards with their stakers. Terms and conditions for the reward payout schedule will be different for each validator.

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawal
Compounding
Penalty
Slashing
  • Stakers need to lock in EOS for CPU or NET resources and then vote up to 30 validators or vote for proxies.
  • Not all validators distribute staking rewards. The protocol only provides staking rewards directly to validators. Only some validators share rewards with their stakers. Please check each validators’ terms and services to confirm whether they share staking rewards.
  • Stakers can stake through proxies. Proxies handle managing votes for validators and reward payouts. Only some proxies share staking rewards with their stakers. Please check proxies’ terms and services to confirm whether they share staking rewards.

Advanced topics

General

  • Staking has a different meaning on the protocol. The protocol requires users to lock in EOS to get CPU or NET resources which is called staking. CPU and NET are required in order to transact on the network as opposed to paying gas fees on Ethereum.
  • Delegating has a different meaning on the protocol. Users can direct their own CPU or NET resources to those who do not have any CPU or NET resources. This is called delegating resources.
    • Users are recommended to use PowerUp, which is a cheaper way for users to transact for a day.
  • Re-voting for validators is required to prevent stake decay. The protocol is designed to double the effectiveness of stake that is re-voted weekly over a year, punishing idle stakers. For example, let’s assume Alice and Bob have both staked 100 EOS today and the protocol has no other stakers. Under this scenario, the protocol will recognize Alice and Bob to have 50% stake power. Fast forward to a year from now, Alice has been constantly re-voting weekly while Bob has taken no action after staking once. The protocol will recognize Alice to have 67% stake power while Bob will have only 33% stake power.

Rewards

How are rewards created?
  • Fixed inflation applied to total supply. 3% of total supply is newly issued. 2/3 of the newly issued tokens go to the EOS Network Foundation. 1/3 of the newly issued tokens are distributed as rewards.
    • 25% of total rewards get allocated to block pay. Block pay is rewards that go to the top 21 validators for producing and voting on blocks.
    • 75% of total rewards get allocated to voter pay. Voter pay is rewards that go to the top 21 validators and candidate validators proportional to stake. Voter pay rewards are only paid out to validators that qualify to receive more than 100 EOS for a given day. For example, if a validator’s share of today’s voter pay rewards yields that validator only 99 EOS, that validator will not receive any voter pay.
  • Rewards are paid daily. The protocol will implicitly calculate new rewards on a daily basis. However, rewards will be issued upon claims by validators.

Risks

  • The protocol does not deduct any stake from validators who are penalized or slashed.

Validators

Total validator cap
⚠️
21 validators
Validator requirements
  • The protocol has only 21 validators (called block producers) who produce and finalize blocks. The top 21 validators weighted by stake are selected.
  • The protocol can have additional candidate validators (called standby producers). While any validator can become a candidate validator, rewards are only paid out to validators that qualify to receive more than 100 EOS for a given day.

Resources