Mina Protocol

Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
3 minutes
Protocol time 2
Epoch (= 7,140 slots)
15 days
First reward delay
2 epochs
30 days
Reward frequency
End of every epoch
15 days
Unbonding period


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawal
  • The protocol issues staking rewards directly to validators. It is up to validators to then distribute staking rewards to their delegators. Terms and conditions for the reward payout schedule will be different for each validator.
  • Stakers can increase or decrease their staking balance by transferring tokens in or out of their staking address.
  • Rewards are added directly to the staking balance of stakers. They do not need to be claimed.
  • Staked tokens and rewards are not locked and can be transferred anytime.

Advanced topics


  • Supercharged rewards. The protocol provides double rewards for any staking accounts that contain only unlocked tokens. This was done to further incentivize any token holders with fully vested tokens to contribute to staking. Stakers can optimize their staking performance by actively separating unlocked tokens from locked tokens when staking.
    • The opportunity to propose blocks is dependent on staked accounts and not validators. For example, a validator could create a supercharged reward block if one of its delegators qualifies even though the validator itself does not qualify.


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.
    • Fixed token issuance each block. Every block, the protocol issues 720 MINA to the validator who proposed the block. This amount is adjusted higher to 1440 MINA for supercharged rewards.
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Validator performance. Validators need to create canonical blocks in the slots they are assigned to in order to receive rewards.
    • Commissions.


  • The protocol does not have any penalties or slashing.


Total validator cap
Validator requirements


Last modified 7mo ago