Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


6 seconds

First reward delay

1 block

6 seconds

Reward frequency

Every block

6 seconds

Unbonding period

21 days

21 days


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal



Offline - 0.75%


Equivocation - 5%

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 21 days.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Fixed number of tokens issued. A fixed number of tokens is issued every block. The exact number is adjusted through governance.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 4,500 blocks out of the most recent 9,000 blocks will be considered offline. Stakers of an offline validator will be penalized and lose 0.75% of their stake. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join after 30 minutes has passed.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 5% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements


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