Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
6 seconds
Protocol time 2
Epoch (= 10,000 rounds)
30 minutes
First reward delay
1 epoch
30 minutes
Reward frequency
Every epoch
30 minutes
Unbonding period
500 epochs
10 days
  • The protocol does not have a fixed round or epoch time.


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
90 XRD
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawal
  • Rewards are added directly to the staking balance of stakers.
  • Stakers can choose to unstake a portion of their staked balance, which includes their original staking amount and any accrued rewards.

Advanced topics


  • All transaction fees are burned on the protocol.


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens.
    • Fixed number of tokens issued. The protocol targets to issue roughly 300 million tokens on an annual basis and distribute these as staking rewards. The protocol periodically plans to adjust the total tokens issued per round to meet this target.
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Epoch times. Since the protocol provides rewards each epoch, the actual epoch times will impact realized rewards.
    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator and its delegators will have their rewards deducted by the percentage of consensus votes missed in a given epoch. They will not receive any rewards if the validator misses 2% or more of consensus votes. For example, let’s assume validator Alice should be receiving 1,000 XRD in epoch N. If her uptime is 98.5%, she will receive 985 XRD as rewards. If her uptime is 95%, she will not receive any rewards.


Total validator cap
Validator requirements
  • Validators have the option to not receive any outside delegations and solely run on their own stake.


Last modified 7mo ago