Radix

Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time 1

Round

6 seconds

Protocol time 2

Epoch (= 10,000 rounds)

30 minutes

First reward delay

1 epoch

30 minutes

Reward frequency

Every epoch

30 minutes

Unbonding period

500 epochs

10 days

  • The protocol does not have a fixed round or epoch time.

Lifecycle

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

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90 XRD

Partial stake changes

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Partial reward withdrawal

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Compounding

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Penalty

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Downtime

Slashing

❌

  • Rewards are added directly to the staking balance of stakers.

  • Stakers can choose to unstake a portion of their staked balance, which includes their original staking amount and any accrued rewards.

Advanced topics

General

  • All transaction fees are burned on the protocol.

Rewards

  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens.

    • Fixed number of tokens issued. The protocol targets to issue roughly 300 million tokens on an annual basis and distribute these as staking rewards. The protocol periodically plans to adjust the total tokens issued per round to meet this target.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Epoch times. Since the protocol provides rewards each epoch, the actual epoch times will impact realized rewards.

    • Commissions.

Risks

  • Penalty. A validator and its delegators will have their rewards deducted by the percentage of consensus votes missed in a given epoch. They will not receive any rewards if the validator misses 2% or more of consensus votes. For example, let’s assume validator Alice should be receiving 1,000 XRD in epoch N. If her uptime is 98.5%, she will receive 985 XRD as rewards. If her uptime is 95%, she will not receive any rewards.

Validators

Total validator cap

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100

Validator requirements

❌

  • Validators have the option to not receive any outside delegations and solely run on their own stake.

Resources

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