Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time 1


3 seconds

Protocol time 2


3.5 days

First reward delay

1 epoch

3.5 days

Reward frequency

Every epoch

3.5 days

Unbonding period


  • Block times are not fixed.

  • Epochs begin every Monday 7:00:00 UTC and Thursday 19:00:00 UTC.

  • Vote-power block. The protocol randomly chooses one block from the last 50% of blocks in an epoch. A snapshot of all stake is taken from that chosen block and is used to weight all validator operations of the upcoming epoch. Rewards are also dependent on this snapshot.

    • For example, let’s assume Alice has decided to stake at epoch X, but the vote-power block snapshot has already been taken. In this scenario, Alice’s stake will become effective only from epoch X+2.


Staked before vote-power block snapshot

Staked after vote-power block snapshot

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

50,000 FLR

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal




  • Rewards must be claimed. Rewards expire after 90 days and are burned.

  • Stakers must stake for a minimum of 2 weeks.

  • The protocol has a special account called an executor which can perform reward claims and staking actions on behalf of delegators. Executor accounts can be used to compound staking rewards.

Advanced topics


  • Flare Time Series Oracle (FTSO) system

    • The protocol’s main purpose is to provide on-chain data for developers to use.

    • Validators are required to participate as data providers for the FTSO system. They must report token prices every 3 minutes.

    • The prices reported by validators are weighted by stake and used to calculate a median.

  • Revoking delegations. Delegators can revoke their stake which take effect immediately. This is expected to be used only under extreme circumstances (i.e. attack from a validator).


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens.

    • Target inflation. The protocol targets a 10% inflation rate in year 1, 7% inflation rate in year 2 and 5% inflation from year 3 and onwards. The newly issued tokens are used to reward the validators operating the FTSO system.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Price reporting. From the weighted median calculated from the FTSO, only validators who have reported within a 50% band of the median will get rewards. In other words, validators who reported a price that is below 25% of the median or above 25% of the median will not get any rewards.

    • Commissions.


  • The protocol does not have any penalties or slashing.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements

1,000,000 FLR

  • All validators begin with a 20% commission fee that can be adjusted afterwards.

  • Validators can accept only 15 times their self-stake amount. They can have up to 200 million of stake.

  • Validators are required to participate as data providers for the FTSO system. They must report token prices every 3 minutes.


Update notes

2023-10-06: Flare has made some changes to how staking functions with FIP.05 (https://proposals.flare.network/FIP/FIP_5.html).

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