Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


1.1 seconds

First reward delay

1 block

1.1 seconds

Reward frequency

Every block

1.1 seconds

Unbonding period

21 days

21 days

  • The protocol has an implicit block time target of 1.1 seconds. However, this is not an enforced parameter and block times can fluctuate depending on network conditions.


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount


Partial stake changes


Partial reward withdrawal






Offline - 0.01%



Equivocation - 5%

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 21 days.

Advanced topics


  • Governance power delegation. By staking with a validator, stakers are delegating governance power to that validator as well. Stakers have the option to overwrite their validator’s governance vote.


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Inflation rate applied to total token supply. Inflation rate adjusts depending on the actual staking ratio to target staking ratio. The rate increases when actual staking ratio is below target staking ratio and vice-versa. The target staking ratio for Injective is 85%. 5% of the newly issued tokens is sent to the community pool and the rest is sent to stakers as rewards.

    • Transaction fees. 5% of transaction fees is sent to the community pool and the rest is sent to stakers as rewards.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 50,000 blocks out of the most recent 100,000 blocks will be considered offline. Stakers of an offline validator will be penalized and lose 0.01% of their stake. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join after 10 minutes has passed.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 0.5% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.


Total validator cap



Validator requirements


  • Minimum commissions. A validator cannot set a commission rate lower than 5%.


Update notes

2023-08-29: Injective's Avalon Upgrade (deployed on June 1, 2023) has introduced a few important changes regarding staking (upgrade notes).

  • Block proposer bonuses have been deprecated. Previously, a validator that proposes a block received from 1% to 5% more rewards.

  • Slashing amount has been decreased. Stake for a slashed validator will be deducted by 0.5% rather than 5%.

  • A minimum commission threshold has been introduced. Validators cannot have a commission rate lower than 5%.

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