Solana

Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
Slot
0.4 seconds
Protocol time 2
Epoch (= 432,000 slots)
2 days
First reward delay
1 epoch
2 days
Reward frequency
First block of every epoch
2 days
Unbonding period
1 epoch
2 days
  • The protocol has a slot time target of 400ms. However, the slot time is not fixed and fluctuates depending on network conditions. Current slot times are executing anywhere between 400ms and 600ms. Consequently, this means epoch times will last anywhere from 2 to 3 days.

Lifecycle

  • The total amount of staking balances that can be changed on the protocol is limited to 25% of total active stake. This could increase warm up and unbonding periods if newly added stake and exiting stake exceed this threshold.

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
✅
0.01 SOL
Partial stake changes
❌
​
Partial reward withdrawal
❌
​
Compounding
✅
​
Penalty
❌
​
Slashing
❌
​
  • Staking rewards are automatically deposited into the staking balance, effectively letting stakers compound immediately. To claim rewards, stakers will need to unstake.

Advanced topics

General

  • Staking balance change limitation. The total amount of stake balance that can be changed on the protocol is limited to 25% of total active stake. This could increase warm up and unbonding periods if newly added stake and exiting stake exceed this threshold.

Rewards

  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.
    • Inflation rate applied to total token supply. The protocol has an inflation rate that starts from 8% and decreases 15% on a yearly basis. The inflation rate will keep decreasing until the terminal inflation rate of 1.5% is hit.
    • Transaction fees. The protocol burns half of all transaction fees while the other half is distributed to the block producer.
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Validator performance. Active validators and their delegators will earn rewards based on how many successful validator actions have been processed each epoch. Inactive validators (called delinquent validators) and their delegators will not earn any rewards for the epoch in which they have been inactive for.
    • Actual slot times. The inflation schedule was initially designed with 400ms per slot in mind. However, actual slots times are clocking in around 500ms, bringing down the annualized reward rate lower than originally planned.
    • Commissions.

Risk

  • The protocol does not have any penalties or slashing.

Validators

Total validator cap
❌
​
Validator requirements
❌
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Resources

Last modified 8mo ago