Time factors

Protocol timeHuman readable time

Protocol time


4 seconds

First reward delay

1 block

4 seconds

Reward frequency

Every block

4 seconds

Unbonding period

14 days

14 days


Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount

Partial stake changes

Partial reward withdrawal



Offline - 0.5%


Equivocation - 10%

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 14 days.

Advanced topics


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Fixed number of tokens issued. A fixed number of tokens is issued every block. This number decreases every year. 309MM is issued on year 1, 159MM in year 2, 84MM in year 3, and 47MM in year 4 for a total of 600MM tokens issued over the first 4 years after genesis. Governance will drive the issuance after year 4.

      Of the newly issued tokens, 53% goes to stakers, 33% goes to incentivizing users, and 13% goes to the community pool.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 45,000 blocks out of the most recent 90,000 blocks will be considered offline. Stakers of an offline validator will be penalized and lose 0.5% of their stake. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join after 30 minutes has passed.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 10% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.


Total validator cap


Validator requirements

  • Minimum commissions. A validator cannot set a commission rate lower than 5%.


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