Time factors

  • Block times are not fixed.


Must know before staking

  • Redelegation without unstaking. The protocol allows stakers to switch their validators without having to unstake and then stake again. The redelegation function can be used only once every 21 days.

Advanced topics


  • Gas rebates.

    • 50% of transaction fees are burned. The other 50% is sent to the contract creator that the transaction interacts with. Effectively, this helps incentivize developers to create contracts with high usage.


  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.

    • Fixed inflation rate applied to total token supply. A fixed inflation rate of 10% is applied to total token supply. 25% of the newly issued tokens is distributed to developers and the remaining 75% goes to stakers.

  • Factors that impact realized rewards.

    • Block proposer. A validator selected to propose blocks earns from 1% to 5% more rewards depending on how many other validator consensus votes have been collected.

    • Commissions.


  • Penalty. A validator that fails to be online for 5,000 blocks out of the most recent 10,000 blocks will be considered offline. Stakers of an offline validator will be penalized and lose 0.01% of their stake. The offline validator will kicked off the active validator set and will be able to join after 10 minutes has passed.

  • Slashing. A validator that attests to two different blocks will be slashed. Stakers of a slashed validator will lose 5% of their stake. The slashed validator will be indefinitely kicked off the active validator set and will need to create a new validator.



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