Polygon

Time factors

Protocol time
Human readable time
Protocol time 1
Block
2 seconds
Protocol time 2
Checkpoint
40 minutes
First reward delay
1 checkpoint
40 minutes
Reward frequency
Every checkpoint
40 minutes
Unbonding period
80 checkpoints
2 days
  • A checkpoint is a snapshot of Polygon blocks committed to Ethereum. The frequency of a checkpoint is not hard enforced and therefore the time between each check point can be anywhere from 20 minutes to 3 hours.
  • Rewards are not earned during the unbonding period.

Lifecycle

Must know before staking

Minimum stake amount
Partial stake changes
Partial reward withdrawals
Compounding
Penalties
⚠️
Offline
Slashing
  • The protocol enforces a soft penalty mechanism. If a validator is offline (fails to sign) for 1,400 consecutive checkpoints, the protocol will force exit the validator. Staked tokens are not deducted as part of this process.

Advanced topics

General

  • MATIC staking happens on Ethereum. Polygon’s Proof of Stake sidechain has three components working in tandem.
    • Bor is the layer where execution happens.
    • Heimdall is the layer where a set of validators form consensus on Bor blocks to commit to Ethereum.
    • Ethereum is where the smart contracts that dictate Heimdall validators exist. MATIC staking happens on these smart contracts.
  • Checkpoints are not fixed. Polygon does not have a fixed duration for checkpoints. This creates volatility on how long it could take for tokens to become staked or to be unstaked.

Rewards

  • Rewards come from newly issued tokens and transaction fees.
    • Fixed emission per checkpoint. While the total maximum rewards per checkpoint is fixed, the actual distributed rewards will slightly vary depending on the length of each checkpoint.
    • Transaction fees. The protocol’s Bor layer implements a similar gas fee model as Ethereum’s EIP-1559. The base fees paid by Bor transactions are burned and priority fees are distributed to validators. Transaction fees are not distributed to delegators.
  • Factors that impact realized rewards.
    • Validator performance. Validators who do not sign a checkpoint will not receive any rewards for that checkpoint.
    • Proposing validator bonus. Validators who collect validator votes and commit the checkpoint receive a 10% of rewards for that checkpoint.

Risk

  • The protocol does not have any penalties or slashing.

Validators

Total validator cap
100
Validator requirements
10,000 MATIC

Resources

Last modified 8mo ago